Aqua control system provides like a magazine the most up-to-date drinking water purification methods and technologies.
Water treatment – the process of bringing contaminated water to the cleanliness state required for a given application. The composition of elementary water treatment processes is selected according to the final product. The main methods of that represent products on our website aqua control system.
Water pollution – adverse changes in the physical, chemical and bacteriological properties of water, caused by the introduction of excess inorganic substances (solid, liquid, gas), organic, radioactive or finally heat, which limit or prevent the use of water for drinking and economic purposes.
Composition of polluted waters
Water pollution is mainly caused by chemicals, bacteria and other microorganisms that are present in increased amounts of natural waters. Chemical, organic and inorganic (mineral) substances come in the form of solutions, colloidal solutions and suspensions. The chemical composition of pollutants is shaped by natural factors, e.g. the decomposition of substances from soils and rocks, the development and death of aquatic organisms, and anthropogenic factors. The most common anthropogenic surface water pollutants include pesticides, surfactants, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenols, chlorine biphenyl derivatives and heavy metals: lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn), as well as heated waters (thermal pollution), which are particularly dangerous for surface water with low flow or standing water. Most anthropogenic water pollutants are toxic to aquatic organisms. Very persistent pollutants in the aquatic environment and very difficult to undergo chemical and biochemical processes are called refractive substances.
The most pollutants end up in water together with sewage. Aqua control system show other sources of water pollution are water and land transport, the use of pesticides and fertilizers, as well as municipal and industrial waste. Waters also become polluted as a result of eutrophication. The water cycle in nature has been disturbed by man – deforestation, agriculture monoculture, improper and excessive farming, urbanization.
Division of impurities Because of its origin
natural – those that come from admixtures contained in surface and underground waters – e.g. salinity, pollution with iron compounds;
artificial – otherwise anthropogenic, i.e. related to human activity – e.g. from sewage, runoff from agricultural areas, municipal landfills. Artificial impurities can also be divided into biological (bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae) and chemical groups (oils, gasoline, greases, oil, fertilizers, pesticides, acids, alkalis).
Due to the degree of harmfulness
directly harmful – phenols (gas works, coking plants), hydrocyanic acid (gas works), sulfuric acid and sulfates, acid rain (fertilizer factories, pulp mills, artificial fiber factories),
indirectly harmful – those that lead to a reduction in the amount of oxygen in the water below the level necessary to keep aquatic organisms alive.
Due to the durability of impurities
decomposable – containing organic substances, potentially toxic, but subject to chemical transformations into simple inorganic compounds with the participation of bacteria (domestic sewage)
non-decomposable – containing substances that do not undergo major chemical changes and are not attacked by microorganisms (salts of heavy metals)
persistent – containing substances that are slightly biodegradable and remaining in the environment in a stable form for a long period (pesticides, phenols, petroleum distillation products)
Because of the source
point sources – sewage discharged in an organized way through sewage systems, mainly from industrial plants and urban agglomerations,
surface or area pollution – pollution washed off by atmospheric precipitation from urbanized areas without sewage systems and from agricultural and forest areas,
pollution from linear or banded sources – pollution of transport origin, produced by means of transport and flushed from the surface of roads or peat bogs, as well as from pipelines, gas pipelines, sewage and sewage channels.